P.O BOX 200084,Nakawa

Zumark Enterprises Limited.

What is fumigation?

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What is fumigation?

Fumigation is a method of pest control or the removal of harmful pests like insects or rodents by completely filling your residential or your non residential area with gaseous pesticides (say chemical smoke,or fumigants) to suffocate or poison the pests within that area.

What are the 4 main types of pests found in homes and organisations?

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Pests can be broken into four main categories

  • Vertebrate Pests. These are the pests with a backbone like Rodents, birds, reptiles, and other mammals.
  • Invertebrate Pests.These are the pests with no backbone like Insects, spiders, ticks, slugs.
  • Weeds. These are any plants growing in places you never wanted them to grow such as your compound.
  • Microorganisms like Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that cause diseases.

What are the most important areas of application for fumigants?

  • In your organisation or home stores,are the treatment of bag stacks or bulk grain in silos. 
  • Additionally fumigants are used in sealed buildings such as your home or organisation, chambers and on ships, in gas-tight containers or wagons to disinfect produce.

What are Gaseous pesticides?

These are formulations that use a flammable gas as a propellant to disperse an insect-killing material in your home or organisation. They are;

  • toxic by inhalation
  • toxic by ingestion 
  • skin absorption due mainly to the insecticide.

What are the types of pesticides?

  • insecticides which I use to kill insects in your home or organisation
  • fungicides which I use to kill fungi in your home or organisation.
  • herbicides which I use to kill plants like weeds in your home or organisation.
  • rodenticides which I use to kill rodents such as mice in your home or organisation
  • algicides which I use to kill algae in swimming pools or tanks in your home or organisation
  • germicides which I use to kill germs in your home or organisation

What are the Classes Of Chemicals Used For Fumigation?

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Kindly Consult me On The Best Fumigation Chemical To Use because when you hire experienced hands for your fumigation job affords you greater peace of mind and eliminates the risks that may result from improper use of the fumigation chemicals.I educate you on fumigant precautions and how long you should wait after fumigation for safety reasons.

Fumigants are classified under;

  • Extremely Hazardous
  • Highly Hazardous
  • Moderately Hazardous
  • Slightly Hazardous
  • Unlikely to Present Acute Hazard. 

Extremely Hazardous Chemicals

Fumigants which fall under this category are highly toxic to human health. As such, the use of such chemicals is highly regulated. You will need to be well trained before using them so why not give me a call here to save time and fees which you will incur in the training and not also forgetting that the first fumigation attempt may not go well due to inadequate experience.Come on,am here for you, I got the training,I got the time to do this for you at affordable rates and I got the experience plus I guarantee you on your satisfaction from the work I perform,check out my reviews for yourself from customers like you to remove any doubts.

When talking about such chemicals, we are talking about the technical grade active ingredients they contain.

The following technical grade active ingredients include; Aldicarb [ISO], Brodifacoum [ISO], and Bromadiolone [ISO]. Others are Bromethaline [ISO], Calcium Cyanide [C], Captafol [ISO], Chlorethoxyfos [ISO] and Chlormephos [ISO].

Additional chemicals are; Chlorophacinone [ISO], Diphenacoum [ISO], Diphethialone [ISO], Diphacinone [ISO] and Disulfoton [ISO].

Other extremely hazardous chemicals include EPN, Ethoprohos [ISO], Flocoumafen, Hexachlorobenzene [ISO], Mercuric chloride [ISO], Mevinphos [ISO], Parathione [ISO], and Phenylmecury acetate [ISO]. Phorate [ISO], Phosphamidon, Sodium fluoroacetate [C], Sulfotep [ISO], Tebupirimfos [ISO*], and Terbufos [ISO] are also included.

Highly Hazardous Chemicals

Fumigants that fall under this category are also highly toxic. Though not as extreme as those we just discussed above. Such pesticides contain several technical-grade active ingredients.

These include Acrolein [C], Allyl alcohol [C], Azinphos-ethyl [ISO], Azinphos-methyl [ISO], and Blasticidin-S.

More of these include Butocarboxim[ISO], Butoxycarboxim [ISO], Cadusafos [ISO], Calcium arcenate [C], and Carbofuran [ISO]. Chlorphenvinphos [ISO], 3-Chloro-1, 2-Propanedio [C], Coumaphos [ISO], Coumatretralyl [ISO], Cyfluthrin [ISO] and Beta-cyfluthrin are included.

Additional technical grade active ingredients include Zeta-cypermethrin [ISO] Demeton-S-methyl [ISO], Dichlorvos [ISO], and Dicrotophos [ISO].

Detailed information can be found on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard Guidelines.

Moderately Hazardous Chemicals

Moderately hazardous chemicals are used in certain fumigants. Though not as toxic as those discussed above, great caution needs to be applied. These types of fumigants are used by both professionals and non-professionals.

For non-professionals, These come with instructional manuals on how they should be applied. Such information should be fully understood and digested to enhance safety and achieve results.

As an unlicensed user, you will find such mild fumigants in stores. But how can these be identified? These go by names such as dichlorvos, oil of red cedar, paradichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and several others.

However, certain restrictions may apply to your location. In other words, the legal angle will need to be considered.

Some locations have restrictions on the use of certain chemicals. You will have to find out from your location’s department of health. 

Therefore a good place to start is by checking these out in your local store. If there aren’t, chances are these are restricted for general use.

Slightly Hazardous 

Certain fumigants, though slightly hazardous to humans, are effective. Such types of fumigants are in greater demand, especially among unlicensed persons. Unlicensed is used here to mean persons without professional training on fumigant use.

Such pesticides contain several active ingredients that won’t be elaborated on here.

You’d find several of these in stores. If you have no clue of what to look out for, the names Vapona, DDVP or NUVAN PROSTRIPS will be of great help. It doesn’t matter your level of education as long as you can read. Such products have been made available to provide alternative methods to combat pest issues. You only need to follow all the instructions provided.

In addition to this are so many online materials. These are in the forms of video demonstrations or articles on how to use them. Such may warrant the use of protective gear too.

Unlikely to Present Acute Hazard

Fumigants under this category are the safest to use. These pose little or no health risks and therefore best for unlicensed use. However, the question is if your pest problems can be effectively tackled.

Well, this depends on use. This class of fumigants, like the others, works best on how well they are applied. Therefore a lot depends on individual use and whether instructions are properly followed.

What are some of the Fumigation Safety Tips

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It all boils down to avoiding all forms of exposure to such chemicals and gases. Preparation is crucial. All necessary safety measures should be decided upon way ahead of time. This includes getting a place to stay for the duration of time required.

  • All forms of dental products, food, or medications should either be removed or stored safely. This includes drinks with broken seals as well as pet foods. Such foods should be tightly sealed in Nylofume bags.
  • Proper ventilation upon return is very necessary. This is to allow for the proper dissipation of lingering fumes. The use of fans in addition to opening all doors and windows is recommended.
  • You should also be on the lookout for reactions. Such reactions may be due to exposure to fumigants. You may experience dizziness, coughs, headaches, nausea as well as fatigue. Health risks should be promptly addressed.

What are the three different Types Of Fumigation Procedure?

There are three types of fumigation, each type serving a specific purpose. 

  • gas fumigation, 
  • liquid fumigation
  • solid fumigation. 

Gas Fumigation

These are mostly odorless and will require utmost adherence to safety instructions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the use of these gas fumigants.

Different gas fumigants are ideal for certain situations. A pest control service will determine what fits a particular pest situation. Sulfuryl fluoride is a fumigant mostly used to fumigate agricultural products such as tree nuts, dry fruits, and cereal grains.

Vikane gas and methyl bromide are gaseous fumigants used on a variety of insects, rodents, nematodes, and plant pests. Their application methods also differ and must only be used by a professional. Professional use is necessary as it helps avoid exposure to such hazardous gases.

Tenting of structures or areas where gas fumigants will be used is necessary. This traps the gas in at a certain concentration sufficient enough to penetrate target materials and tight spots. This moves by diffusion and is held for a while until all pests are exterminated.

Whether the structure is commercial, residential, or even agricultural products, you aren’t allowed to be there for your safety. At least until after the treatment when the gas fumigant has had its desired effect (exterminated all pests).

Warning Agent

Before gas fumigants are applied or pumped into a structure or target area, such a place will need to be free of pets or other humans. That is, apart from the technician who’s wearing protective gear.

Why this is important is because most types of gas fumigants are odorless. This could pose a severe risk to persons within a building at the time of application. However, a warning agent like Chloropicrin helps avoid this from happening. Unlike fumigants, this gas is an irritant that serves to keep anyone or living thing out.

Having applied the warning agent, sufficient time (mostly a few minutes) is allowed to pass before gas fumigants are pumped in.

Liquid Fumigation

This is another type of fumigation applied with the same purpose of exterminating pests. Unlike gas fumigants, these fumigants are liquid-based and applied quite differently to all sorts of problems like mold, insects, and other pests.

One of the most important pieces of equipment needed for applying liquid fumigants is a sprayer.

Two things hold for liquid fumigants. That is, they are generally flammable, and are toxic to humans and pets.

Knowing this is important to help avoid fire and hazardous accidents. Liquid fumigants are mostly used in outdoor environments such as on farms and orchards.

That means they are mostly used to protect agricultural products from pest activity. However, this type of fumigation is also performed within enclosed areas too. Unlike outdoor environments where mist resulting from spraying such fumigants get easily dissipated, it takes a longer time to dissipate within enclosures.

The rule of thumb is to keep a distance throughout fumigation until it is considered safe to enter such areas. When using liquid fumigants, utmost care needs to be taken. That includes wearing protective gear and reading the safety instructions that come with such products.

So, what are these liquid fumigants? They are quite varied and include methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, ethylene dichloride, ethyl acetate, sulphuryl fluoride, and chloroform carbon tetrachloride. These are effective liquid fumigants used in a variety of pest conditions with great results.

Solid Fumigation

This is the third type of fumigation which is deployed for specific pest issues. The type of pest problem determines what fumigation method to apply, one of which has to do with the use of solid fumigation. Solid fumigants come in different forms.

These are powder, pellet, and tablet forms. Such solid fumigants aren’t just applied indiscriminately. Rather, it is measured like other types of fumigants and applied with caution. A specific amount of solid fumigants will cover or be sufficient for a specific area. So what dosage is ideal and sufficient to cover a particular area?

Well, first of all, you won’t have to be bothered with dosage as solid fumigation is also carried out by pest control professionals. You only need to point the way and give way for them to perform their job. Popular solid chemical fumigants include calcium cyanide and aluminum phosphide.

How about safety? Well, solid fumigants have been touted to be much safer compared to gas fumigants. Plus, these chemicals are milder in the environment despite exterminating pests effectively.

However, being safer only doesn’t translate to being harmless to humans. It only means they aren’t as harmful when compared to gas fumigants. A professional applying such fumigants will still need to wear protective gear. Exposure to these types of fumigants has been linked to several health conditions.

Each of these solid fumigants exterminates a variety of pests at different stages of development. That is, from the egg, larva, pupa, to adult stages. These are used to exterminate pests in agricultural products. This gives far-reaching solutions to all sorts of pest issues.

The adoption of this type of fumigation is determined by what is considered the best alternative by a pest control technician. After inspection of the problem, recommendations are given to you before proceeding with the process.

What is common with all pest control measures is that you are involved in the decision-making process. Most pest management services seek to offer highly satisfactory services that also include customer service.

What are the advantages of fumigation

  • Controls pests at all life stages.
  • Efficient and time-saving.
  • Fumigants can reach where most other insecticides cannot.
  • Offers zero insect tolerance in products or living environments.
  • Reduced residue problems in commodities & structures.

What factors influence the success of fumigation?

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The success of fumigation depends mainly on;

  • the right dosage of the fumigant
  • the strict adherence to the minimum exposure time
  • the quality of sealing.

Recommended application rates

The concentration of gas initially established first leads to the insects being narcotized before they are finally killed. The resulting reduction in their respiratory activity means that they take in less of the gas. Should the gas concentration drop rapidly as a result of insufficient sealing (or closing up the area) or damaged tarpaulins, the pests will reawaken after a certain period without having received a lethal dose. Good sealing is the most important element when fumigating as this will lead to excellent success.

Exposure Time

The minimum exposure time depends on the temperature, the relative humidity and the formulation used, and on whether there is any resistance against the pesticide. The following principle applies: the longer the gas is able to act, the better is the success. This, however, presupposes that your home or organisation space is perfectly sealed during the entire fumigation.

Sealing

The most important prerequisite for the success of fumigation is the quality of the fumigation sheet and the sealing in order to maintain the necessary concentration of gas for the entire exposure period.

Final Thoughts

Knowing this information is one thing and practicing it is another,doing it yourself is okay but consider the time you are going to spend;

  • IDENTIFYING the pest,
  • DECIDING the right fumigation process and procedure
  • LEARNING the fumigation process
  • purchasing the RIGHT insecticide 
  • purchasing the right FUMIGATION machinery or renting the best fumigation machinery and LEARNING its mode of operation
  • Purchasing PROTECTIVE WEAR
  • the money and errors within as compared to the affordable fumigation packages we have to know if it's really worth it to do it yourself. 

Whatever you decide dear,I am with you for either consultations before,during or after the fumigation or a call for me to assist in the fumigation of your home or workplace.

Has this been helpful to you? I hope it has.

Your Pest Control Advisor and Practitioner,

David

Zmark Enterprises Limited

+256 784 539 599 - Whatsapp.

+256 756 178 784

info@zumarkenterprisesltd.com

zumarkenterprisesltd0210@gmail.com

References.

Wikipedia.

globalrustrade.com

mdpi.com

medium.com/@bakhtiyarkhan

farmbizafrica.com

usafleetsupply.com